… The human emotion of expressions has three major functions. They contribute to the opening and ruling of emotion experiences; they communicate something about internal states and intentions to others; and they activate emotions in others, a process that can account for angry, aggressive and violent behaviour (Macropaedia 1992: 18: 248). This essay will consider the meaning of anger, aggression and violence in terms of emotion and the activation, structure and functions of them culturally, environmentally and socially.
Anger, aggression and violence are three intense sources of emotion and emotional expression, which psychologically are defined as a state of feeling. These feelings often include action tendencies and tend to trigger certain perceptual and cognitive processes. Some find that intense emotions such as anger, aggression and violence are casual factors or influences of thought, actions, personalities, and social relationships according to the Macropaedia on Human Emotion (1992: 18: 248). Anger is seen as a strong emotional reaction to a situation. Mostly stemming from stress in any individual life and resulting from an escalation of conflict. There are two general types of anger.
The first is a general irritation, which most people carry around in their day-to-day lives. To have 1 level of irritation the human instinct proves it much easier to fly off the handle over a simple matter. And for those with an external locus of control conflict is very hard to avoid when it rises from instinct. The other case is anger being a secondary emotion when it is built up such emotion from circumstance of disappointment, hurt, frustration, pain, unmet expectations, and so on. This is also seen as a tool for self-protection in situations where an angry personality may feel vulnerable from admitting hurt or disappointment.
Anger not only changes the emotional state but the physical too. When you become angry the body creates stress forcing an increased heart rate, perspiration, an increased breath rate and tension in the muscles. Along side the two types of anger are two types of controlling anger: Anger-ins, which labels people who have a hard time even admitting they are angry and anger-out for people who express their anger, often quiet vocally. There are however suggestions in how to control your anger either way in four easy steps: take time out, relaxation exercises, self talk, and find the fear. Leading from how to control ones anger is learning where and how the anger came about and how to respond to anger arousing situations. Aggression is generally seen as an act of attack involving hostility from an individual or group of people.
Typically, it is used for such acts as can be assumed to be motivated by any of the following: (a) fear or frustration; (b) a desire to produce fear or fight in others; or (c) a tendency to push forwards ones own ideas or interests. Ethologists as an evolutionarily determined (‘instinctive’) pattern of reaction to specific stimuli such as invasion of territory or attack upon offspring; those with a Freudian orientation treat it as a conscious manifestation of Thanatos (the hypothesis ed death instinct); Alder’s followers regard it as a display of the will to power, the desire to control others; those who tie together the notions of aggression and frustration define it as any response to a frustrating situation and social learning theorists view aggressive acts as responses learned through observation and imitation of others and subsequent reinforcement of such behaviour. Commonly these acts of aggression stem from the emotional state of anger with a direct intent to harm a victim of any description be it another human, physical object or so on. Aggression can be fear induced; being an action induced by extreme fear, as when a normally humble person cornered by a predator such as an abusive parent suddenly turns on it and attacks. Aggression can also be induced, which is seen as an artificial arousal leading to attack on anything present. For example an experimental person is subject to conditions of stress (unavoidable electric shock) in the presence of another person or some neutral object.
The stressed person in some situation will often aggress on the other present person or object. Instrumental aggression is a result from learning experiences; an action acquired through the action of reinforced responding. For example an aggressive act that is a means to another’s end, shoving someone aside to leave a room quickly. Violence however is of a much stronger effect. It is a rough or injurious physical or moral force of action or treatment. It is an action seen socially as unjust and unwarranted in its exertion of power against ones human rights and laws.
It becomes a distortion of meaning, fact or significance within its true lies. Violence is aggression at its most severe. It stems from an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists). Violence is an abusive or unjust exercise of power.
The quality or state of being violent is a highly excited action, whether physical or moral; vehemence; impetuosity; force. It is a very intrusive action. Almost intended to receive an entitlement of respect for such measures of abuse. Not finished yet… violence in society, home, TV, streets Although clearly anger, aggression and violence are very much a continuation from one another there is a difference.
Theoretical perspectives differ however within individuals definitions from one to the other. Anger is mostly seen as an emotion. Aggression is seen as and act of that angry emotion and lastly violence is the extreme measure of the act of aggression. Evidently these emotions mound from one another leading to a separate level of emotion and physical outrage.
An analysis of how these factors lead to individual levels of violent behaviour. Then finally a conclusion stating the facts and comments of the body of content. Socially learned behaviour is controlled by environmental influences, rather than by innate or internal forces. American psychologist, Albert Bandura, has undertaken innumerable studies showing that when children watch others they learn many forms of behaviour, such as sharing, aggression, cooperation, social interaction, and delay of gratification. In Bandura’s classic study of imitation learning, children who saw a model punished of aggressive behaviour tended to exhibit fewer aggressive responses than children who saw the model rewarded for such behaviour, or than those who saw the model neither rewarded nor punished (Bandura 1973). However, Bandura asserted that children in all groups learned aggression eventually.
His research had lead some psychologists to question the potential “learning experiences” offered children by popular television shows and motion pictures, particularly those shows in which antisocial or violent behaviour is presented. Subsequence research on the effects of violence in the media has been controversial. Two opposing theories have been propagated; one claims that the viewing of violence will allow such drives to be sublimated, while the other claims that such viewing merely increases the drive. Evidence appears to favour the latter theory (Bandura 1973). Psychologists following Bandura have stated that social learning based on observation is a complex process that involves three stages: exposure to the responses to others; acquisition of what an individual sees; and subsequent acceptance of the modelled acts as a guide for one’s own behaviour. It is interesting how the levels of violent behaviour fluctuate from female to male.
Anger is not about control; anger is about loss of control (Donovan 1999: 15). Males can be angry with all sorts of things. From early childhood it is taught that the male character will be judged by their ability to perform, provide and protect. To succeed in these tasks it is suggested by Donovan (1999: 16) that males quickly learn control of the emotional features of the human nature, which might threaten success. It is also suggested the price to pay for the level of control expected of males is their humanity. And for a suggested number of males, losing control is painful and fearful.
They feel vulnerable; judge themselves; and feel they have failed. Donovan suggests that the pain of failure and the fear of losing control drives much of the male anger. It is commonly known that females grow through childhood with a different emotional perspective than males. Conclusion. These three specific emotions: anger, aggression and violence are central to the issues of modern times, but perhaps they have been critical to the issues of every era. Poets, prophets, and philosophers of all ages have recognised the significance of these emotions in individual life and human affairs, and the meaning of each specific emotion, at least in the context of verbal expression, seems to be timeless.
Although art, literature and philosophy have contributed to the understanding of emotion experiences throughout the ages, modern science has provided a substantial increase in the knowledge of the neuro physiological basis of emotions and their structure and functions. Social and constructivist theories agree that the perception, thought, imagery, and memory are important causes of these intense emotions. They also agree that once these emotions have been activated, the emotion and cognition influence each other. How people feel affects what they perceive, think and do, and vice versa. ReferencesBandara. A.
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