The effects that music has on life are unimaginable. Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits The purpose of this paper was to present the conceptual framework underlying the psychophysical , to discuss published findings since the review of Lucaccini and Kreit (1972), and to consider limitations in previous research. Certain generalizations about the effects of music emerge. First, it appears that synchronization of sub maximal exercise with musical accompaniment results in increased work output. Second, music apparently reduces the rate of perceived exertion during sub maximal exercise.
Third, music tends to enhance affective states at both medium and high levels of work intensity. However, the effect of asynchronous music in contributing to optimal arousal is unclear. Based on a review of related literature, it was concluded that appropriately selected music can enhance enjoyment levels and adherence to physical activity. The psychophysical effects of music has become an area of increased interest amongst sports researchers during the last decade.
Selected research has demonstrated that music has significant psychophysical benefits during physical activity (e. g. , Boutcher & Trenske, 1990; Copeland & Franks, 1991; Lee, 1989). These studies have shown that listening to music can produce ergo genic effects in terms of improved motor performance and increased aerobic endurance, and can also enhance the exercise experience. The proposed mechanisms through which music produces psychophysical benefits include lowered perceived effort, arousal control, improved affective states, and a synchronization effect. By contrast, however, other studies have shown that music has no psychophysical benefits (Patton, 1991; Schwartz, Fernhall, & Plowman, 1990).
Studies which have examined the synchronization of movement with music have consistently shown an ergo genic effect (An shel & Maris i, 1978; Michel & Wanner, 1973; Up pal & Datta, 1990). However, a greater number of studies which have examined the effects of asynchronous (background) music have produced equivocal findings in that some studies identified psychophysical effects (e. g. , Boutcher & Trenske, 1990; Copeland & Franks, 1991), whereas other studies (e.
g. , Patton, 1991; Schwartz, Fernhall, & Plowman, 1990) showed no effects. To date, there has been no comprehensive review of the psychophysical effects of music since the work of Lucaccini and Kreit (1972). They concluded that scientific research has failed to reveal a strong link between music and improved motor performance. Lucaccini and Kreit highlighted a number of methodological problems. One recurrent problem is the lack of control on dependent variables, such as the simultaneous introduction of other stimuli along with music.
Furthermore, findings since 1972 also appear to arise from a questionable theoretical base and numerous methodological limitations.