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The Bloody Shirt Elects Grant. People still believe that a good general would make a good president. 1. Republicans elect Grant as president. A. Call for reconstruction of the south 2.

Democrats. Denounce military reconstruction. 3. Wealthy eastern delegates want bond issue during war be redeem in gold though it was first purchase with depreciated money. 4. Poorer Midwestern delegates want Ohio a redemption of money maximum extent as possible…

Grant won by margin vote. His victory came from black vote and not having 3 of southern states counted. (Republicans had to control South in order to remain in power). The Era of Good Stealings. Population of republic rise again (increase of immigration and 3 rd largest nation of the west). Moral structure of u.

S. fell short of its physical structure. 1. Money got through to wrong fingers.

(few skink politically pollution prevail l). A. Jubilee Jim and Gay Gould 2 million aries plan to 1869 to corner the gold market, a plan that would only work if Treasury would refrain from selling gold. They bribe Grant’s brother-in- law and on black Friday madly bid price of god and drove business men to the wall… AT last Grant release gold in treasury but still he was foolish for letting it take place. B.

Bu is Tweed employ bribery, graft, and fraudulent election to milk the country. Which raise tax assessment of citizens. In 1871 NY times publish evidence of his deed and Samuel J. Tilden prosecuted him and gain fame that late pave the way as a presidential candidate.

A Carnival of Corruption. Grant can’t sense his cabinet is full of trash except Hamilton Fish (secretary of state) hi sin laws s attain public payroll… Grant is tarred by Credit Mobile (scandal who 1867-1868 before taken office) which is a railroad construction company by transcontinental union pacific railroad. They made the price of cost more than it was and share bribed with congressmen. 1.

in 1872 Ny new paper reveal scandal (vice pre + congress me) n were shown to be part of it… Alcohol is another scandal in Washington. 1875 Whiskey ring ahd robbed treasury of i llion tax revenue. 1. Grant 1 st want no guilty men to escape.

2. He change his view when his own secretary is guilty, so push power to jury which led guilty to escape… 1876 another corruption came when secretary of war William Belknap shown to have pocketed money by selling privilege of disbursing supplies to Indians. Belknap was impeached by House but he resigned. The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872.

1872 Liberal Republican party is formed by a national wave of disgust of Grant. It wanted: 1. Purification of Washington administration. 2. End to military reconstruction. 3.

The party was muffed at Cincinnati nominating convention when reformers of journalist and politicians nominated Horace Greeley as pre (an editor who denounced Democrats) he was surprisingly endorse by Democracy North and South when he pleaded for a bloody chasm. 4. Again like other third party it made important impression in the history of America… The Republicans again Grant… Both nominees were eminently unqualified for this high office, but grant won. 1.

Because of the outcome regular republicans cleaned own house fearing liberal republican would use it to them out out of congress. A. 1872 passed amnesty removing political disabilities form all but some 500 former confederation. B. Reduce high civil war tariffs C. Fumigate Grant administration with mild reformers…

Depression and Demands for Inflation. Panic of 1873 broke (Cause: roller coaster economy in this unbridle capital expansion). 1. Laid by more railroad, sunk more mines, erecting more factories, and clear more grain field than market can handle. 2. Bankers made too much loans financing these unbridle enterprises.

Thus when profits far, loans become unpaid, and who el things collapse. A. Jay Cooke and Company went bankrupt 15, 000 business went bankrupt. (people were, black hit hard because Freedmen saving trust company is also involved)… Debtors look for ways to lessen value of debts thus promoted issuance of more money 4 cheap money… Creditors argue oppositely and advocated hard money by: 1.

Getting Grant to veto against more money. 2. Resumption Act 1875 passed where gov to withdraw green back money from circulation and to the redemption of all paper currency gold at face value, beg 1879… Debtors look toward silver, 1870 treasury said silver only worth 1/16 of an ounce of gold. ‘a silver miner stop going to gov.’ a Congress drop coinage of silver dollar but 1870 new discovery of silver again dropped prices’a western miner and debtors assail drive of 73 demanding for more greenbacks (an inflation)… = Republicans resist this demand and Grant went against it…

Grant = sound money. (Contract = treasury accumulate gold stock and reduce issuance of money ‘a deflationary effect. But it restore gov credit ration t, brought paper money to full face value, and redemption pay few exchange bills for gold… Bland Allison Act of 1876 by Richard P. Bland is a compromise between silver loving soft money and silver hating sound money. (Law said gov would buy and coin 3-4 million silver each month good 4 inflationist, but gov only agree to buy legal minimum…

Republican hard money policy had a political backlash. 1. Helped elect a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874. 2.

1874 spawned a Greenback labor party that polled million vote and elect 14 members in congress. Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age. During gilded age political see saw delicately balance where little nudge would be advantage to opposite party. (rarely do one side control the house, senate, and the white house).

with politicians not incline to be bold who take petty and trivial action… Democrats and Republicans agree on most significant economic issue but they also were very competitive of each other. 1. Parties are tightly and efficiently organized. 2. Party command loyalty from members 3.

80% of voters vote, turnout unmatched before or since… Partisan fervor resulted from the sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the members of the 2 parties. 1. Republicans (Puritanism where there are strict codes of personal morality and believe gov should regulate both economy and moral affairs of the community as a whole. 2. Democrats (Lutherans and Catholics where adhere to faith that took less stern view of human weakness, tolerance of differences, and reject gov sending a single standard on the entire society.

Differences in these temperament + religious values ‘a political contests at local level ex. Prohibition + education. 1. Democrats had support by electoral base in south, northern industrial cities with immigrants. 2. Republican had support from Midwest, rural small town of northeast, grate feed men in south, and esp.

GAR grand army of republic a political fraternal organization of Union veterans of the civil war. The two parties greatly supported and exercise expanded government employment as political spoil mushroom into big business. (ex post office) Reformers inc how assail spoil system as nemesis of efficient public administration and fuel of corruption… Boisterous infighting beset the Republican party in 1870-1880. 1.

Stalwart fact led by Roscoe Conkling embrace system of swapping civil service jobs for votes. 2. Half Breeds opposing Stalwart (James G. Blaine) demand civil service reform but really want to known who should grasp the ladle to dish out the spoils. The two though had colorful personalities only succeeded really in stalemating each other and deadlocking their party.

Ch. 24 Politics in the Gilded Age, 1869-1889 The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876. Grant supporter begged Grant for a 3 rd term in 1876 and Grant agree, but through the house voted against it reminding the country of the 2 term tradition.’ a Conkling ties an Balineties naturalize each other 1. Republicans voted Rutherford B. Hayes as candidate for president because: 1. He is a veteran therefore appeal to veteran 2.

he had been Ohio governor for 3 terms which also swing votes of Ohio in his close pre contests. 2. Democratic nominee is Samuel J. Tilden (one who bagged Boss Tweed).

one electoral short and more popular votes than Hayes. 3. Both parties hurried to the 3 southern states of Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida where Republican regimes had not yet been redeem by Southern Democrats forcing their way back into power. Each state submitted two sets of returns where Constitution specifies that the electoral return from state shall be sent to Congress in the presence of House and Senate they shall be open by pre of the Senate. The counting is a dispute because it would determine the winners.

The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. The deadlock cause the hammering an agreement in Henry Clay tradition (Compromise of 1877). 1. 1877 Congress passed Electoral Count Act the break the election by setting up an electoral commission of 15 men from the Senate, house, and the supreme court. A. the 15 th member was suppose to be justice David Davis (democratic leaning () but he resign and replace by the last member of supreme court, a republican.

B. 1877 Senate and House met together, with Florida votes which was close but in favor of Republican than Democrat. Republican had earlier remove troops from the 2 remaining states. 1. To avoid Democrat to calm down the Republican assure Democrats presidential patronage trough and support or bill subsidizing the Texas and Pacific Railroad construction of S. transcontinental railroad…

The price of compromise is republican party quietly abandoning its commitment to black equality in this Hayes-Tilden deal. 1. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 last radical republicans effort (guarantee equal accommodation in public places and prohibit racial discrimination in jury selection) is pronounce unconstitutional in the Civil Rights Cases 1883 by Supreme Court. 2. Hayes appoint former Confederate officer as postmaster general. 3.

Hayes also withdrew last federal troops that were protecting reconstructed state gov… Democratic South quickly suppress friendless as south white return to politics… 1. black who tried to vote face unemployment, eviction and harm. 2. south state add literacy requirement for votes and poll taxes.

3. blacks and poor whites were forced into sharecropping and tenant farming. Ex owner of slave become their merciless landlords causing them in debt and work just as.’ 1. From informal separation of blacks and whites came the state level legal codes of segregation (Jim Crow laws).

Where supreme court found that separate but equal facilities were constitutional. Reality blacks is treated as second class citizens. Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes. 1877 = End of Reconstruction + class warfare (cause by long years of depression and deflation after panic of 1873). Cutting wage of railroad ‘a labor uprising ‘a federal troop’a strike and violence 1. Failure of railroad strike = weakness of labor movement because racial and ethical f issues (fracture of labor Unity) esp of Chinese and Irish.

A. Chinese originally came for gold and railroad but found none, poor and uneducated face extraordinary odd to survive in America if stayed. B. Irish born Denis Kearney led followers to abuse Chinese because Irish immigrants resented Chinese competition of cheap labor and see them as a me nance. C. Congress 1879 passed bill to restrict influx of Chinese immigrants’a Hayes veto because it’s discriminatory and violate treaty with china’a angry ca burn the pre’a 1882 Congress close door on Chinese laborer with enactment of the Chinese Exclusion ct until 1943.” Cold Water” Gets Cold Shoulder.

Rutherford B. Hayes took office with a title of a fraud, term prance advocates, and a pre who wrote finish to reconstruction. Abandon by his party after 1 st term because his political record is a disaster. Served only 1 term.

The Garfield Interlude. In Election 1880 the republican nominated James A. Garfield a rising to the rank of major general in the civil war officer from Ohio. They also picked Chester A. Arthur (stalwart) from NY as vp. (Platform = protective tariff and reform of civil service) and won…

Democrats dominate Winfield S. Hancock (a former Civil War general who appeal to veteran and south became once govern reconstruction site). (platform = civil service reform and tariff for revenue only)… Garfield is the 2 nd president to be killed by an assassin’s bullet. The assassin (Charles J. Guinea) an office seeker pleaded insanity defense but still hanged.

Garfield is a ma tyr to the evils of soils seeking and his death in a way shock public servants into taking action to correct flagrant abuses on he spoil system. He Chester Arthur Takes Command.

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